Ford Fusion Manuals

Ford Fusion: Four-Wheel Drive Systems / Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing

DTC Chart: AWD System - PCM

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).

Network DTCs (U-codes) are often a result of intermittent concerns such as damaged wiring or low battery voltage occurrences. Additionally, vehicle repair procedures, such as module reprogramming, often set network DTCs. Replacing a module to resolve a network DTC is unlikely to resolve the concern. To prevent repeat network DTC concerns, inspect all network wiring, especially connectors. Test the vehicle battery.
REFER to: Battery (414-01 Battery, Mounting and Cables, Diagnosis and Testing).


  DTC Chart - PCM


  DTC Description Action
P164D AWD ID Block Corrupted, Not Programmed PROGRAM the PCM with the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid bar code information using Automatic Torque Coupling Configuration.
REFER to: Four-Wheel Drive Systems - System Operation and Component Description (308-07A Four-Wheel Drive Systems, Description and Operation).
P181F Clutch Control System Performance This is an internal AWD relay module fault. INSTALL a new AWD relay module.
REFER to: All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Module (308-07A Four-Wheel Drive Systems, Removal and Installation).
P182B Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance   GO to Pinpoint Test F
P182C Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low   GO to Pinpoint Test F
P182D Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High   GO to Pinpoint Test F
P183D Transfer Case Fluid Over Temperature   GO to Pinpoint Test F
P187B Tire Size Out of Acceptable Range - AWD Disabled / Limited Function   GO to Pinpoint Test B
P188B AWD Clutch Control Circuit   GO to Pinpoint Test C
P188C AWD Relay Module Communication Circuit CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test. If the DTC returns, GO to Pinpoint Test D
P188D AWD Relay Module Feedback Circuit CLEAR the DTCs. REPEAT the self-test. If the DTC returns, GO to Pinpoint Test D

Symptom Chart

Diagnostics in this manual assume a certain skill level and knowledge of Ford-specific diagnostic practices.
REFER to: Diagnostic Methods (100-00 General Information, Description and Operation).

In most circumstances, the PCM sets DTCs to help guide with diagnostics. Refer to the DTC Chart before using the symptom chart. The Symptom column lists the vehicle condition. The Possible Sources column lists a detailed vehicle condition. The Action column lists the action to be performed to determine the cause of the condition. Each action lists the components that can cause the system and the individual components in that system. The components are listed in order of disassembly. Use the list of components and the required action to focus on disassembly inspections for the root cause of the concern.


  Symptom Chart - Four-Wheel Drive Systems


Condition Possible Sources Actions
Unable to duplicate customer concern; no DTC present The concern description is inaccurate CARRY OUT the AWD System Functional Test. GO to Pinpoint Test A
Vehicle has no or inadequate torque at rear wheels
  • Fuse
  • Wiring, terminals or connectors
  • Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid
  • AWD Relay Module
  • PCM
  GO to Pinpoint Test C
Wheels/tires Check wheels and tires for damage.
REFER to: Wheels and Tires (204-04A Wheels and Tires, Diagnosis and Testing).
Rear axle Check rear axle for damage.
REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Diagnosis and Testing).
PTU mechanical failure Check PTU for damage.
REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Diagnosis and Testing).
Vehicle binds in a turn or resists turning/pulsates or shudders in a straight line Wheels/tires Check wheels and tires for damage.
REFER to: Wheels and Tires (204-04A Wheels and Tires, Diagnosis and Testing).
Wiring, terminals or connectors   GO to Pinpoint Test E
Driveshaft Check driveshaft for damage.
REFER to: Driveshaft (205-01 Driveshaft, Diagnosis and Testing).
  • Wiring, terminals or connectors
  • Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid
  • AWD Relay Module
  GO to Pinpoint Test E
PTU mechanical failure Check PTU for damage.
REFER to: Power Transfer Unit (308-07B Power Transfer Unit - 6-Speed Automatic Transmission – 6F35, Diagnosis and Testing).
REFER to: Power Transfer Unit (308-07C Power Transfer Unit - 6-Speed Automatic Transmission – 6F50/6F55, Diagnosis and Testing).
Driveshaft Check driveshaft for damage.
REFER to: Suspension System (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, Diagnosis and Testing).
Wheel bearings Check wheel bearings for damage.
REFER to: Suspension System (204-00 Suspension System - General Information, Diagnosis and Testing).
  ABS CHECK the ABS.
REFER to: Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control (206-09 Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control, Diagnosis and Testing).
Halfshafts Check the halfshafts for damage.
REFER to: Rear Drive Halfshafts (205-05 Rear Drive Halfshafts, Diagnosis and Testing).
Tire/axle out of acceptable range
  • Wheels/tires
  GO to Pinpoint Test B

Pinpoint Tests

AWD System Functional Test

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

The AWD system is an active system, which means it not only responds to wheel slip between the front and rear axles but also has the ability to anticipate wheel slip and transfer torque to the rear wheels before the slip occurs. The AWD system is active all the time and requires no input from the operator. The AWD system continuously monitors vehicle conditions and automatically adjusts the torque distribution between the front and rear wheels. During normal operation, most of the torque is delivered to the front wheels. If wheel slip between the front and rear wheels is detected, if the vehicle is under acceleration or if the vehicle is in a handling event, the AWD system increases and distributes torque to the rear wheels as needed. When the AWD system is functioning properly, there should be no perceived speed difference between the front and rear axles when launching or driving the vehicle on any uniform surface. Traction should be similar to a part time 4WD system in 4H (4X4 HIGH), but have no binding in turns.

The AWD_CLTCH_CMD PID percentage displayed on the scan tool is an inverse value. 95% = Clutch is released, 5% = Clutch fully applied.

NOTE: 0% is an invalid command. A DTC may set if 0% is commanded using output state control.

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • ABS sensor wiring
  • Constant velocity joints
  • Driveshaft
  • Halfshafts
  • Tire size
  • Tire wear
  • U-joints

PINPOINT TEST A : AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) SYSTEM FUNCTIONAL TEST
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing  WARNING: When directed to drive the vehicle as part of this test, drive the vehicle on a hard surface in an area without traffic to prevent a crash. Failure to follow these instructions may result in personal injury.
NOTE: Check related modules for Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs). If Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) are set in other modules, diagnose those Diagnostic Trouble Codes (DTCs) first before continuing.
A1 CHECK FOR ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID LOCK
  • Drive the vehicle on a dry, hard surface in turns while applying the accelerator pedal.

Is driveline wind-up present in turns?
Yes GO to Pinpoint Test E
No GO to A2

A2 CHECK ABS WHEEL SPEEDS
  • Using a scan tool, drive the vehicle at 30  mph ( 48  km/h) and monitor the following wheel speed sensor PIDs:
    • Left Front Wheel Speed Sensor (LF_WSPD)
    • Left Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (LR_WSPD)
    • Right Front Wheel Speed Sensor (RF_WSPD)
    • Right Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (RR_WSPD)

Are all 4 wheel speeds within 1.2  mph ( 2  km/h) of each other?
Yes GO to A3
No
REFER to: Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control (206-09 Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control, Diagnosis and Testing).

A3 CHECK VEHICLE ACCELERATION IN A STRAIGHT LINE
  • Perform 3 accelerations from  mph (  km/h) to 30  mph ( 48  km/h) in a straight line (1 each with low, medium and full accelerator pedal application).

Does the vehicle pulsate or shudder while accelerating?
Yes GO to Pinpoint Test E
No GO to A4

A4 CHECK VEHICLE TURNING ABILITY
  • Drive the vehicle in a fully locked turn, on dry pavement, at 5  mph ( 8  km/h).

Does the vehicle bind in the turn or resist turning?
Yes GO to Pinpoint Test E
No GO to A5

A5 CHECK TORQUE AT THE REAR WHEELS
  • Using the diagnostic scan tool, energize the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid to a constant 10% applied.
  • On dry pavement, drive the vehicle in a fully locked turn at 5  mph ( 8  km/h).

Does the vehicle bind in the turn or resist turning?
Yes END the active command. CLEAR all DTCs if set. End of System Functional Test. The system is operating correctly at this time.
No CHECK the Power transfer unit (PTU).
REFER to: Power Transfer Unit (308-07B Power Transfer Unit - 6-Speed Automatic Transmission – 6F35, Diagnosis and Testing).
REFER to: Power Transfer Unit (308-07C Power Transfer Unit - 6-Speed Automatic Transmission – 6F50/6F55, Diagnosis and Testing).


DTC P187B

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

The AWD system uses input data from the ABS module wheel speed sensor inputs to the PCM. A dissimilar spare tire size (other than the spare tire provided) or major dissimilar tire sizes or improperly inflated tires between the front and rear axles could cause the AWD system to stop functioning correctly.


  DTC Fault Trigger Conditions


DTC Description Fault Trigger Conditions
P187B Tire Size Out of Acceptable Range - AWD Disabled/Limited Function When the PCM detects an inappropriate size wheels/tires (greater than 5% difference in size across the front and rear axle or greater than 14% difference in size at one wheel on either the front or rear axle) installed.

Possible Causes

  • Wiring, terminals or connectors
  • Wheels/tires
  • ABS system

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • Inspect for correct tire size and inflation.

Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing  WARNING: When directed to drive the vehicle as part of this test, drive the vehicle on a hard surface in an area without traffic to prevent a crash. Failure to follow these instructions may result in personal injury.


PINPOINT TEST B : DTC P187B
B1 CHECK FOR RECENT DIFFERENT SIZED TIRE USAGE
  • Check with customer about recent tire changes or installation.

Was a tire recently installed on the vehicle that was not originally supplied with the vehicle or has the mini spare been used?
Yes The concern may have been caused by the previously mismatched tires. VERIFY the tires do not exceed Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) recommendations and all 4 tires are the same size.
No GO to B2

B2 CHECK TIRE SIZE AND BRAND
  • Check the tire size and brand.

Are all 4 tires the same size and brand?
Yes GO to B3
No Tire size should not exceed Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) recommendations and all 4 tires should be the same size and brand. INSTALL new tire(s) as necessary.

B3 CHECK TIRE AIR PRESSURES
  • Check the air pressure in all 4 tires.

Are all 4 tires at the recommended air pressure?
Yes GO to B4
No ADJUST tire air pressures to specifications.

B4 CHECK ABS WHEEL SPEEDS
  • Drive the vehicle at 30  mph ( 48  km/h), monitor the following wheel speed sensor PIDs:
    • Left Front Wheel Speed Sensor (LF_WSPD)
    • Left Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (LR_WSPD)
    • Right Front Wheel Speed Sensor (RF_WSPD)
    • Right Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (RR_WSPD)

Are all 4 wheel speeds within 1.2  mph ( 2  km/h) of each other?
Yes GO to B5
No The ABS module is sending invalid wheel speed data to the PCM,
REFER to: Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control (206-09 Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS) and Stability Control, Diagnosis and Testing).

B5 CHECK FOR CORRECT ABS AND AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) SYSTEM OPERATION
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect all ABS, AWD relay module, and Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid connectors.
  • Check for the following:
    • corrosion (install new connector or terminals – clean module pins)
    • damaged or bent pins – install new terminals/pins
    • pushed-out pins – install new pins as necessary
  • Reconnect all ABS, AWD relay module, and Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid connectors. Make sure they seat and latch correctly.
  • Operate the system and determine if the concern is still present.

Is the concern still present?
Yes CHECK OASIS for any applicable TSBs. If a TSB exists for this concern, DISCONTINUE this test and FOLLOW TSB instructions. If no TSBs address this concern,
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Click here to access Guided Routine (ABS).Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Internet Explorer version 11 or greater is required to perform this Pinpoint Test.
No The system is operating correctly at this time. The concern may have been caused by module connections. Address the root cause of any connector or pin issues.


DTC P188B


Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 34 for schematic and connector information.

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

The AWD system uses data from other systems as inputs to the PCM. The PCM uses the inputs to determine the appropriate time to send a signal and have the AWD relay module energize the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid.

The AWD_CLTCH_CMD PID percentage displayed on the scan tool is an inverse value. 95% = Clutch is released, 5% = Clutch fully applied.

NOTE: 0% is an invalid command. A DTC may set if 0% is commanded using output state control.


  DTC Fault Trigger Conditions


DTC Description Fault Trigger Conditions
P188B AWD Clutch Control Circuit When the PCM detects an open, a short to ground or voltage on the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid voltage supply and/or return circuit.

Possible Causes

  • Wiring, terminals or connectors
  • Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid (part of the Rear Drive Unit (RDU))
  • AWD relay module
  • PCM

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • Active torque coupling (ATC) solenoid harness

PINPOINT TEST C : P188B
C1 CHECK THE ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect Active Torque Coupling (ATC) Solenoid C4347 .
  • Measure:
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
    Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4347-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4347-2

Is the resistance between 1 and 3 ohms?
Yes GO to C2
No INSTALL a new Active Torque Coupling Clutch.
REFER to: Active Torque Coupling Clutch (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Removal and Installation).

C2 CHECK THE ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TO VOLTAGE
  • Disconnect AWD Relay Module C4379 .
  • Ignition ON.
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-5 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground
      C4379-8 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is any voltage present?
Yes REPAIR the circuit.
No GO to C3

C3 CHECK THE ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-5 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground
      C4379-8 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms?
Yes GO to C4
No REPAIR the circuit.

C4 CHECK THE ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID CIRCUITS FOR AN OPEN
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-5 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4347-1
      C4379-8 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4347-2

Is the resistance less than 3 ohms?
Yes GO to C5
No REPAIR the Open circuit.

C5 CHECK THE ACTIVE TORQUE COUPLING SOLENOID CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TOGETHER
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-5 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4379-8

Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms?
Yes GO to C6
No REPAIR the circuits.

C6 CHECK FOR CORRECT PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) OPERATION
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect all PCM connectors.
  • Repair:
    • corrosion (install new connector or terminals – clean module pins)
    • damaged or bent pins – install new terminals/pins
    • pushed-out pins – install new pins as necessary
  • Reconnect all PCM, AWD relay module, and Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid connectors. Make sure they seat and latch correctly.
  • PERFORM the AWD Drive Cycle
    REFER to: All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Systems (308-07A) .
    and determine if the concern is still present.

Is the concern still present?
Yes CHECK OASIS for any applicable TSBs. If a TSB exists for this concern, DISCONTINUE this test and FOLLOW TSB instructions. If no TSBs address this concern, INSTALL a new AWD relay module.
REFER to: All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Module - 2.0L Duratorq-TDCi (110kW/150PS) (308-07A) .
CLEAR the DTCs. PERFORM the AWD Drive Cycle,
REFER to: All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Systems (308-07A) .
If the DTC returns,
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Click here to access Guided Routine (PCM).Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Internet Explorer version 11 or greater is required to perform this Pinpoint Test.
No The system is operating correctly at this time. The concern may have been caused by module connections. ADDRESS the root cause of any connector or pin issues.


DTCs P188C, P188D


Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 34 for schematic and connector information.

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

The AWD system uses data from other systems as inputs to the PCM. The PCM uses the inputs to determine the appropriate time to send a signal and have the AWD relay module energize the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid.


  DTC Fault Trigger Conditions


DTC Description Fault Trigger Conditions
P188C AWD Relay Module Communication Circuit When the PCM detects an open, a short to ground or voltage on the command circuit.
P188D AWD Relay Module Feedback Circuit When the PCM detects an open, a short to ground or voltage on the feedback circuit.

Possible Causes

  • Wiring, terminals or connectors
  • AWD relay module
  • PCM

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • BJB fuse 12 (15A)

PINPOINT TEST D : AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) INFORMATION CIRCUITS FAULT
D1 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY VOLTAGE CIRCUIT

NOTE: Fuse 12 (15A) protects multiple components. Check related systems that may be inoperative.

  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect AWD Relay Module C4379 .
  • Inspect the connectors for damaged or pushed out terminals, corrosion, loose wires and missing or damaged seals.
  • Ignition ON.
  • Measure:
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is the voltage greater than 11 volts?
Yes GO to D2
No VERIFY BJB fuse 12 (15A) is OK. If OK, REPAIR the open circuit. If not OK, REFER to the Wiring Diagrams manual to identify possible causes of the circuit short. CLEAR the DTCs.

D2 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE GROUND CIRCUIT FOR AN OPEN
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4379-4

Is the voltage greater than 11 volts?
Yes GO to D3
No REPAIR the circuit.

D3 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE COMMAND AND FEEDBACK CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TO VOLTAGE
  • Ignition ON.
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4379-4

Is any voltage present?
Yes GO to D4
No REPAIR the circuit.

D4 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE COMMAND AND FEEDBACK CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground
      C4379-3 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms?
Yes GO to D5
No REPAIR the circuit.

D5 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE COMMAND AND FEEDBACK CIRCUITS FOR AN OPEN
  • Disconnect PCM 1.5L C1915B .
  • Disconnect PCM 2.0L C1381B .
  • Disconnect PCM 2.5L C1551B .
  • Disconnect PCM 2.7L C1231B .
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors

      For 1.5L


    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1915B-46
      C4379-3 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1915B-60

    Click to display connectors

      For 2.0L


    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1381B-46
      C4379-3 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1381B-60

    Click to display connectors

      For 2.5L


    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1551B-46
      C4379-3 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1551B-60

    Click to display connectors

      For 2.7L


    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1231B-46
      C4379-3 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1231B-60

Is the resistance less than 3 ohms?
Yes GO to D6
No REPAIR the circuit.

D6 CHECK THE AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE COMMAND AND FEEDBACK CIRCUITS FOR A SHORT TOGETHER
  • Measure.
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C4379-6 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C4379-3

Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms?
Yes GO to D3
No CHECK OASIS for any applicable TSBs. If a TSB exists for this concern, DISCONTINUE this test and FOLLOW TSB instructions. If no TSBs address this concern,
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Click here to access Guided Routine (PCM).Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Internet Explorer version 11 or greater is required to perform this Pinpoint Test.

D7 CHECK FOR CORRECT PCM (POWERTRAIN CONTROL MODULE) OPERATION
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect all PCM connectors.
  • Check for the following:
    • corrosion (install new connector or terminals – clean module pins)
    • damaged or bent pins – install new terminals/pins
    • pushed-out pins – install new pins as necessary
  • Reconnect all PCM connectors. Make sure they seat and latch correctly.
  • PERFORM the AWD Drive Cycle.
    REFER to: Four-Wheel Drive Systems - System Operation and Component Description (308-07A Four-Wheel Drive Systems, Description and Operation).
    and determine if the concern is still present.

Is the concern still present?
Yes CHECK OASIS for any applicable TSBs. If a TSB exists for this concern, DISCONTINUE this test and FOLLOW TSB instructions. If no TSBs address this concern,
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Click here to access Guided Routine (PCM).Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Internet Explorer version 11 or greater is required to perform this Pinpoint Test.
No The system is operating correctly at this time. The concern may have been caused by a loose or corroded connector. ADDRESS the root cause of any connector or pin issues.


Vehicle Binds in a Turn or Resists Turning/Pulsates or Shudders in a Straight Line


Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 34 for schematic and connector information.

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

The AWD system is an active system, which means it not only responds to wheel slip between the front and rear axles but also has the ability to anticipate wheel slip and transfer torque to the rear wheels before the slip occurs. The AWD system is active all the time and requires no input from the operator. The AWD system continuously monitors vehicle conditions and automatically adjusts the torque distribution between the front and rear wheels. During normal operation, most of the torque is delivered to the front wheels. If wheel slip between the front and rear wheels is detected, if the vehicle is under acceleration or if the vehicle is in a handling event, the AWD system increases and distributes torque to the rear wheels as needed. When the AWD system is functioning properly, there should be no perceived speed difference between the front and rear axles when launching or driving the vehicle on any uniform surface. Traction should be similar to a part time 4WD system in 4H (4X4 HIGH), but have no binding in turns.

The AWD_CLTCH_CMD PID percentage displayed on the scan tool is an inverse value. 95% = Clutch is released, 5% = Clutch fully applied.

NOTE: 0% is an invalid command. A DTC may set if 0% is commanded using output state control.

Possible Causes

  • Wiring, terminals and connectors
  • Wheels/tires
  • ABS system
  • AWD relay module
  • Active Torque Coupling (ATC) Clutch

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • Wheel speed sensor wiring harness

Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing  WARNING: When directed to drive the vehicle as part of this test, drive the vehicle on a hard surface in an area without traffic to prevent a crash. Failure to follow these instructions may result in personal injury.


PINPOINT TEST E : VEHICLE BINDS IN A TURN OR RESISTS TURNING/PULSATES OR SHUDDERS IN A STRAIGHT LINE
E1 CHECK FOR TORQUE AT THE REAR WHEELS
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid C4347 .
  • Inspect the connector for damaged or pushed-out terminals, corrosion, loose wires and missing or damaged seals.
  • Drive the vehicle in a straight line on dry pavement.

Is a pulsation or shudder still present?
Yes
REFER to: Rear Drive Axle and Differential (205-02 Rear Drive Axle/Differential, Diagnosis and Testing).
No GO to E2

E2 MONITOR THE CLUTCH STATUS PID
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Connect Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid C4347 .
  • Ignition ON.
  • Using the diagnostic scan tool, monitor the AWD_CLTCH_CMD# PID.
  • Drive the vehicle at a constant 5  mph ( 8  km/h) in tight turns on dry pavement while monitoring the Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid duty cycle.

Is the duty cycle less than 80%?
Yes GO to E3
No GO to Pinpoint Test B

E3 CHECK FOR THE CORRECT WHEEL SPEEDS
  • Drive the vehicle at 30  mph ( 48  km/h), monitor the following wheel speed sensor PIDs:
    • Left Front Wheel Speed Sensor (LF_WSPD)
    • Left Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (LR_WSPD)
    • Right Front Wheel Speed Sensor (RF_WSPD)
    • Right Rear Wheel Speed Sensor (RR_WSPD)

Are all 4 wheel speeds within 1.2  mph ( 2  km/h) of each other?
Yes GO to E4
No GO to Pinpoint Test B

E4 CHECK FOR CORRECT AWD (ALL-WHEEL DRIVE) RELAY MODULE OPERATION
  • Disconnect AWD Relay Module C4379 .
  • Disconnect Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid C4347 .
  • Check for the following:
    • corrosion (install new connector or terminals – clean module pins)
    • damaged or bent pins – install new terminals/pins
    • pushed-out pins – install new pins as necessary
  • Connect AWD Relay Module C4379 .
  • Connect Active Torque Coupling (ATC) solenoid C4347 and make sure it seats correctly.
  • PERFORM the AWD Drive Cycle.
    REFER to: Four-Wheel Drive Systems - System Operation and Component Description (308-07A Four-Wheel Drive Systems, Description and Operation).
    and determine if the concern is still present.

Is the concern still present?
Yes INSTALL a new AWD relay module.
REFER to: All-Wheel Drive (AWD) Module (308-07A Four-Wheel Drive Systems, Removal and Installation).
No The system is operating correctly at this time. The concern may have been caused by a loose or corroded connector. ADDRESS the root cause of any connector or pin issues.


P182B, P182C, P182D, P183D


Refer to Wiring Diagrams Cell 34 for schematic and connector information.

Normal Operation and Fault Conditions

This power transfer unit (PTU) fluid temperature sensor is located in the (PTU) (6F50/55 only). It is a temperature-sensitive device called a thermistor. The resistance value of the sensor varies with temperature change. The PCM monitors the voltage across the transfer case fluid temperature sensor to determine the temperature of the power transfer unit (PTU) fluid temperature.

The AWD_CLTCH_CMD PID percentage displayed on the scan tool is an inverse value. 95% = Clutch is released, 5% = Clutch fully applied.

NOTE: 0% is an invalid command. A DTC may set if 0% is commanded using output state control.


  DTC Fault Trigger Conditions


DTC Description Fault Trigger Conditions
P182B Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Range/Performance This DTC sets when the PCM detects an open, a short to ground or voltage on the sensor circuit.
P182C Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit Low This DTC sets when the PCM detects a short to ground an open, or low voltage on the sensor circuit.
P182D Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Circuit High This DTC sets when the PCM detects the sensor circuit voltage is high.
P183D Transfer Case Fluid Over Temperature This DTC sets in the PCM when the PTU fluid temperature has exceeded it's maximum operating temperature.

Possible Causes

  • Wiring, terminals and connectors
  • Transfer case fluid temperature sensor (Power Transfer unit Sensor)
  • PCM

Visual Inspection and Diagnostic Pre-checks

  • Transfer case fluid temperature sensor wiring harness
  • PTU operation is normal and quiet
  • PTU fluid level

PINPOINT TEST F : P182B, P182C, P182D, P183D
F1 RETRIEVE AND RECORD ALL DTCS
  • Using the diagnostic scan tool, retrieve all DTCs.

Is DTC P182B, P182C, P182D, and/or P183D present?
Yes For DTCs P182B, P182C, P182D, GO to F2 For DTC P0183D only, GO to F6
No System is operating correctly a this time. Confirm that the power transfer unit is not overheating due to a mechanical issue.
REFER to: Power Transfer Unit (308-07C Power Transfer Unit - 6-Speed Automatic Transmission – 6F50/6F55, Diagnosis and Testing).

F2 CHECK THE TRANSFER CASE FLUID TEMPERATURE SENSOR SIGNAL VOLTAGE
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect the PTU C1831 .
  • Inspect the connector for damaged or pushed-out terminals, corrosion, loose wires and missing or damaged seals.
  • Ignition ON.
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C1831-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is the voltage greater than 4.1 volts?
Yes GO to F3
No GO to F4

F3 CHECK THE TRANSFER CASE FLUID TEMPERATURE SENSOR GROUND CIRCUIT FOR AN OPEN
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C1831-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1831-2

Is the voltage greater than 4.1 volts?
Yes GO to F5
No REPAIR the circuit.

F4 CHECK THE TRANSFER CASE FLUID TEMPERATURE SENSOR SIGNAL CIRCUIT FOR AN OPEN
  • Ignition OFF.
  • Disconnect the PCM C1231B .
  • 2.7L engine, measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C1831-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   C1231B-76

Is the resistance less than 3 ohms?
Yes GO to F5
No REPAIR the circuit.

F5 CHECK THE TRANSFER CASE FLUID TEMPERATURE SENSOR SIGNAL CIRCUIT FOR A SHORT TO GROUND
  • Measure:
    Click to display connectors
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
      C1831-1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Ground

Is the resistance greater than 10,000 ohms?
Yes GO to F6
No REPAIR the circuit.

F6 CHECK THE TRANSFER CASE FLUID TEMPERATURE SENSOR RESISTANCE
  • Measure:
    Positive Lead Measurement / Action Negative Lead
    Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Component side, pin 1 Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Transfer Case Fluid Temperature Sensor Component side, pin 2
    Temperature C Temperature F MIN Ohms MAX Ohms MIN Volts MAX Volts
    -40 -40 2.541M 4.545M 4.96 4.98
    -30 -22 1.367M 2.337M 4.93 4.96
    -20 -4 766K 1.255M 4.87 4.92
    -10 14 444.9K 701.4K 4.78 4.86
    0 32 267.1K 406.2K 4.65 4.77
    10 50 164K 241.2K 4.46 4.62
    20 68 103.6K 147.8k 4.19 4.40
    25 77 83.21K 116.9k 4.03 4.27
    30 86 67.23K 116.9k 3.85 4.12
    40 104 44.67K 93.12k 3.45 3.75
    50 122 30.35K 60.22k 3.01 3.33
    60 140 21.04K 39.88k 2.56 2.87
    70 158 14.86K 26.99k 2.13 2.14
    80 176 10.68K 18.64k 1.74 1.98
    90 194 7.79K 13.11k 1.40 1.60
    100 210 5,781 93.85k 1.12 1.27
    110 230 4,345 5,038 0.89 1.01
    120 248 3,308 3,771 0.71 0.79
    130 266 2,549 2,859 0.57 0.63
    140 284 1,987 2,194 0.45 0.49
    150 302 1,565 1,703 0.36 0.39

Does the temperature to resistance specifications match?
Yes
Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing   Click here to access Guided Routine (PCM).Ford Fusion. Four-Wheel Drive Systems. Diagnosis and Testing Internet Explorer version 11 or greater is required to perform this Pinpoint Test.
No INSTALL a new transfer case fluid (PTU) temperature sensor.


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